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Gypsum utilization prospects
Release time:2016-12-29 15:48:48      Click times:1222

Market Analysis of Desulphurized Gypsum Industry

In 2010, China will be discharged each year nearly 100 million tons of coal-fired power plant flue gas desulphurization by-products - desulfurization gypsum; also desulfurization gypsum and desulfurization gypsum belong to the same chemical gypsum more than 40 million tons of gypsum; 2007 natural gypsum in China The output of more than 5000 million tons, so that even if all the chemical gypsum all replaced by natural gypsum, there may be tens of millions of tons of gypsum and gypsum can not be used. Thus, if not the chemical gypsum processing technology to be innovative, open up new uses, comprehensive utilization, will inevitably cause secondary pollution. In addition, the desulfurization gypsum output more uniform distribution characteristics, changed the original gypsum product production areas away from the consumption of the situation, which is bound to break the original gypsum industry distribution pattern; and gypsum and natural gypsum different physical form, While the gypsum is forced to produce the output, without the use and pollution of the environment, is different from the natural state of natural gypsum was a deep gypsum gypsum products, Buried underground, no impact on the environment, so that the development of circular economy, energy-saving emission reduction policy driven by the desulfurization gypsum deep processing industry is bound to be speeding development; therefore, a major gypsum industry reshuffle big development began! And this article is the desulfurization gypsum industry market outlook made a systematic analysis.


First, desulfurization gypsum and its status

In 2006, China's total consumption of 1.165 billion tons of coal, and China's high sulfur content of coal, an average of 1% -2%, which emissions each year due to coal-fired 10 million tons of sulfur dioxide, resulting in economic losses of 200 billion The government has attached great importance to environmental protection measures for coal-fired power plant flue gas desulfurization, since 2003, the State Development and Reform Commission approved the new coal-fired power plants, if the sulfur content of coal-fired power plants, sulfur dioxide emissions, Up to more than 0.7%, it is necessary to install flue gas desulfurization unit; already built coal-fired power plants must also be gradually installed flue gas desulphurization device; therefore, to the end of 2007, China has 270 million kilowatts of coal-fired generating units installed flue gas Desulfurization equipment; and by 2010, China will have 460 million kilowatts of coal-fired generating units installed flue gas desulfurization equipment, of which 88% of the flue gas desulfurization equipment is to use limestone - gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization system (ie WFGD) China's coal sulfur content, so in 2010, the annual emissions will be nearly 100 million tons of wet FGD by-product - gypsum. In addition, China's annual output of 11 million tons of phosphate fertilizer, desulfurization gypsum and gypsum emissions each year belong to the gypsum 40 million tons of phosphogypsum, and phosphogypsum accumulation for many years has reached hundreds of millions of tons. In 2007, the output of natural gypsum in China was more than 50 million tons (of which 35 million tons was used for cement retarder and the others were converted to hemihydrate gypsum or gypsum board), so that even if all the chemical gypsum was completely replaced The natural gypsum, there may still be tens of millions of tons of gypsum and gypsum can not be used. Thus, if you do not chemical gypsum processing technology to innovate and develop new uses, comprehensive utilization, will inevitably cause secondary pollution; For example: Guizhou Hongfu Corporation annual emissions of 4 million tons of phosphogypsum, groundwater Pollution has infiltrated hundreds of kilometers away, the Dongting Lake in northern Hunan Province. If the establishment of chemical gypsum emissions sites, not only to take up a lot of land, but also need to invest tens of dollars per ton, coupled with transportation costs, which is a small business burden, so the comprehensive utilization of gypsum and other chemical gypsum has been Imminent task.

Although the desulphurization gypsum higher than the natural gypsum, the former replace the latter is completely feasible; but because of the two indicators have some differences, resulting in the two deep processing equipment are different; therefore, specifically dealing with gypsum process and equipment Still at the early stage of development. On the one hand is a huge amount of desulfurization gypsum abandoned and not be used, but the exhaust pollution into waste residue pollution, acidification of soil and groundwater; on the other hand every year to exploit tens of millions of tons of natural gypsum, an increase of resources and Energy consumption, destruction of the ecological environment of the mining area. Therefore, in order to really use these chemical gypsum, turning waste into treasure, not only to vigorously promote the existing gypsum deep-processed products; more to expand its use in order to completely eat this huge amount of waste; and the use of expanded plaster , The prerequisite is to improve the performance and cost-effective gypsum powder; if you want to improve the performance and cost-effective gypsum powder, the existing technology gap, the need for technological innovation, to produce a cost-effective, can be a large number of conversion desulfurization Plaster of deep processing products to.

Second, the comprehensive utilization of gypsum desulfurization policy guidance

At present, the State Environmental Protection Administration has been with the sulfur dioxide emissions accounted for more than 60% of the country, abatement tasks accounted for 75% of the reduction targets of the State Grid, Huaneng and other six power companies and seven major emission provinces signed the current sulfur dioxide emissions to 2010 The amount of control objectives of the responsibility of the book, coal-fired power plant flue gas emissions to the implementation of the "on-line monitoring", the past that installed the desulfurization device will not run the situation will be put an end to the annual emissions of gypsum will increase year by year, Tens of millions of tons. Thus, if not for the comprehensive utilization of desulfurized gypsum, will inevitably cause secondary pollution (acidification of soil and water) and take up a lot of land, thus forming an embarrassing situation: for the treatment of sulfur dioxide, but pollution will change a form , Will be discharged into the air of harmful substances into the left on the ground "waste", which is contrary to the original intention of choosing gypsum recycling; if the establishment of its emission sites, to be invested tens of dollars per ton, plus transportation costs , Which is also a coal-fired power plant is not a small burden. Therefore, the National Development and Reform Commission in the "speed up the thermal power plant flue gas desulfurization on the industrialization of the development of a number of opinions" (made to change the word [2005] No. 757) in Article VI, "further development of flue gas desulphurization by-product utilization, Economic development. Organization of building materials, agriculture, forestry, electricity and other departments, research institutes on the desulfurization by-products, especially desulfurization gypsum, in-depth study, put forward a variety of ways to use guidance advice, organization and implementation of comprehensive utilization of desulphurization by- Timely introduction of desulphurization by - product comprehensive utilization of coercive measures and related preferential policies.

In addition, on August 29 this year, at the Fourth Session of the 11th NPC Standing Committee, "Circular Economy Promotion Law" has been adopted, since January 1, 2009 onwards. The adoption of the "Circular Economy Promotion Law" to "reduction, reuse, resource-based" as the main line, a total of seven chapters 58, general principles, the basic management system; which also set up a chapter of legal responsibility , The various subjects do not fulfill the statutory obligations of the corresponding provisions of the penalty, in order to protect the effective implementation of the law. In order to tie in with the development of circular economy law, the State Council and relevant departments are organizing the development or revision of the supporting systems and standards. These supporting regulations, rules and plans for the 28, together with the relevant laws and regulations have been enacted and the implementation of regulations 61, a total of 89; for example, has been deep processing of gypsum products included in the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" ( 2008), which not only supports the comprehensive utilization of desulfurized gypsum in tax revenue, but also qualifies the comprehensive utilization of desulphogypsum gypsum and becomes an important part of national construction of a resource-saving society; in addition, more than 300 relevant standards are included This year and two years of the preparation plan. These supporting laws and regulations, standards development and implementation, will greatly enhance the "circular economy law" operational.

This shows that mandatory coal-fired power plants to achieve zero emissions of waste, gypsum must be comprehensive utilization of mandatory policy will be introduced within a year or two, which will "deep processing of gypsum processing equipment and technology industries," the market policy to provide protection; There are members of the CPPCC National Committee has proposed: a comprehensive request for the comprehensive utilization of waste power plant motion, while some provinces and cities have begun to develop "comprehensive utilization of gypsum to promote the program."


Third, the characteristics of desulfurized gypsum and the use of principles

1, the same point of desulfurization gypsum and natural gypsum

(1) hydration kinetics and condensation characteristics consistent;

(2) the main mineral phase, the transformation of the five morphological properties of seven variants of the same physical and chemical properties of desulfurization gypsum can replace natural gypsum for building materials and ceramic mold;

(3) Neither is radioactive and does not endanger health.

2, the difference between gypsum and natural gypsum

(1) the original physical state is not the same: natural gypsum is bonded together block, and desulfurization gypsum to separate crystalline particles exist; Gypsum and gypsum between the grinding of a large difference between the natural gypsum after grinding After the coarse particles are mostly impurities, and the gypsum of its gypsum is more for the fine particles of impurities, its characteristics and the opposite of natural plaster;

(2) particle size and gradation: flue gas desulfurization gypsum average particle size distribution of its narrow band, high fineness (200 mesh or more), the particles are mainly concentrated in the 30-60μm, the gradation is far worse than natural Gypsum powder after the gypsum powder. Therefore, the existing natural gypsum as raw material of calcined gypsum equipment and production process can not be completely copied, to use for the chemical gypsum design of the production process and equipment; for example, desulfurization gypsum is not suitable for fluidized calcination equipment, because it tablets Diameter is too small, not burned easily blown out; also, such as natural gypsum production of high-strength gypsum autoclave, gypsum can not be directly into the autoclave; another gypsum particle size distribution is very narrow, mature processing Gypsum powder, it must be modified for its grinding, resulting in differential, in order to have better condensation strength; and grinding in the modification of the formation of roller pressure difference is not good, and the split The force of crack formation is the best, and the impact force is the second; therefore, the choice of modified grinding should pay attention to its mechanical characteristics.

(3) high water content, poor mobility, only suitable for belt conveyor.

(4) impurity composition differences, leading to dehydration characteristics, easy to grind and calcined gypsum powder in the mechanical properties, rheological properties and other macro characteristics of the different.

(5) the output of desulfurized gypsum in the country more evenly distributed, in particular the gypsum products in large areas of consumption in the eastern developed areas of gypsum production is also very large, and the grade of gypsum and very high, generally more than 90%; To make up for China's high-grade natural gypsum reserves small, low output, the product away from the consumption of major flaws.

2, the use of gypsum principles

(1) Adhere to the principles of expanding utilization, efficient utilization, clean utilization, and making the best use of resources, with emphasis on promoting the recycling and recycling of GGPS with a large amount of resources and great potential for resource utilization, reasonably extending the industrial chain and developing high value- Use of products, reduce secondary pollution, improve resource utilization efficiency, to achieve economic, social and environmental benefits of organic unity.

(2) adhere to the principle of market-oriented, local conditions, production and sales on the road, to determine the comprehensive utilization of desulfurization gypsum priority areas of development, improve resource utilization efficiency and reduce waste emissions important measures to become the driving force for the healthy development of enterprises.

(3) Comprehensive consideration, desulfurization gypsum deep processing production line with the power plant flue gas desulfurization system of organic integration, seamless convergence; while deep processing of gypsum production can not produce new sources of pollution, as far as possible the use of waste heat as heat source.

3, the direct use of gypsum

(1) after drying can be used as cement retarder;

(2) after preparation can be used for saline land improvement.

Fourth, desulfurization gypsum deep processing technology and equipment market

To the end of 2000, China's coal-fired thermal power installed capacity of 300 million kilowatts, while the annual market turnover of flue gas desulfurization project is also basically zero; but the National Development and Reform Commission forced coal-fired power plant must be installed flue gas desulfurization equipment in 2003, In just a few years time flue gas desulfurization project annual turnover of the market soared to about 50 billion now, basically reached its peak this year; However, with the domestic flue gas desulfurization engineering technology and the market increasingly sophisticated and mature, Market competition is more and more intense. In the country on the one hundred desulfurization company for the boom and the decline of the flue gas desulfurization market competition when you die, but ignored the by-products after desulfurization, especially in the flue gas desulfurization market more than 88% The resulting by-product - desulphurization gypsum utilization and processing equipment and technology potential market. In the limestone - gypsum wet desulfurization process, the absorption of one ton of sulfur dioxide will produce 2.7 tons of desulfurized gypsum; by 2010 China will have 460 million kilowatts of coal-fired generating units installed flue gas desulfurization device; according to China's coal sulfur , So in 2010, each year will produce 100 million tons of wet desulfurization by-product - desulfurization gypsum. In 2007, China's natural gypsum production of more than 5000 million tons, only 7 million tons into hemihydrate gypsum powder, this is because the existing production process to produce semi-water gypsum powder quality technical indicators is low, so processed into gypsum wall materials Softening coefficient and strength are very low, can not be used for load-bearing walls and floor materials, etc., so that even if all the gypsum to replace the natural gypsum, there may be tens of millions of tons of gypsum can not be used. Therefore, the comprehensive utilization of gypsum desulfurization is an imminent task; similar historical experience tells us that if the gypsum can not be a good comprehensive utilization of sulfur dioxide emissions can not be real, not discounted implementation.

According to the current market conditions, the treatment of every million tons of equipment for the desulfurization gypsum 100 million, if one-third of all desulfurized gypsum, can reach billions of market value, if further processing, and its equipment Billions of dollars in the amount of the market; the other equipment and technology can also be used to deal with similar to desulfurization gypsum, annual emissions of 40 million tons of phosphogypsum comprehensive management, also have a lot of money profits.

In short, the industry for the energy-saving emission reduction, the development of recycling economy, clean production, to achieve zero emissions of coal-fired power plant waste, building a resource-saving society has a very important social and economic significance.


Fifth, construction gypsum and its production equipment market analysis

1, the main purpose of building gypsum and market analysis

1.1 Gypsum block

Gypsum block production in foreign countries have been more than 100 years of history, the production of many countries in the world have been basically mechanized and automated. The annual output of France is more than 17 million square meters, Germany is 6 million square meters and the Netherlands is 3 million square meters. In addition, Russia, Eastern Europe, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Asia, South Korea, India and Iran have large-scale production. Gypsum block with light weight, can replace the clay brick, less destroyed land, etc., in high-rise buildings as non-load-bearing walls, can increase the effective use of about 10% of the area. General gypsum block is made of ordinary gypsum powder with water mixing, pouring molding, condensation hardening made; with other new wall materials comprehensive comparison, it is the construction industry, the best performance, the best use, the lowest price of the new Wall material (the price is even lower than the price of clay brick into the wall), in full compliance with the state on the promotion of new building materials industry-oriented, but for various reasons, gypsum block is currently in the country has not been a good promotion and application; New wall materials production and sales of 575 million cubic meters, of which 5% (about 30 million cubic meters) from the gypsum block to replace 20 million tons per year can be converted to gypsum.

1.2 gypsum mortar

Gypsum mortar is the replacement of cement mortar products, it can overcome the cement mortar wall after the hollowing, dry, off and so on, with a variety of wall substrates can be a good bond, especially for ceiling plastering, in Canada Gas concrete wall better, but it also has the following characteristics:

(1) Surface decoration: the wall is dense and smooth and can not be gray, have high strength without shrinkage, the appearance of elegant, odorless, no cracks.

(2) fire performance: in the event of fire, gypsum hardened body has a large number of crystal water released under heat, the formation of steam, blocking the spread of the flame, while the entire dehydration process to absorb a lot of heat, thereby enhancing the fire resistance performance.

(3) thermal insulation: gypsum hardened body is a porous material, thermal conductivity, thermal insulation performance is good.

(4) construction convenience: a good workability, water retention, on-site even after mixing water directly on the wall plastering, operating freely, low labor intensity, less material consumption.

(5) to save time: plaster layer hardening block, curing cycle is short, the entire hardening and strength of the standard process 1 to 2 days to complete, can greatly improve efficiency and speed up the progress of the project.

(6) has a respiratory function: when the indoor humidity is high, the breathing hole automatically moisture; in the opposite conditions, can automatically release the reserves of water, repeated cycle, the indoor humidity control within the appropriate range for the occupants to create A good and comfortable living environment.

(7) favorable winter construction: construction is not subject to seasonal restrictions, especially in winter (-5 ℃ above) grab period, the hydration rate is not due to low temperature significantly slowed down, as long as the mixing water does not freeze, Quick-setting characteristics, is the winter indoor plastering a good material.

At present, Beijing's gypsum mortar market has matured, annual sales of 15 million tons, the price of 500 yuan per ton (no sand); In addition, Tianjin, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Shanghai and other regions In the city is also widely used. According to Shanghai 's "Eleventh Five - Year" plan of environmental protection key scientific research projects (No. Hu Huanke 05-15) "Shanghai coal - fired power plant flue gas desulfurization gypsum utilization prospects. Gypsum mortar insulation properties of energy-saving residential promotion in China, especially high-rise energy-saving housing, is of great significance. With the construction of commercial mortar and building energy-saving work of the full advance, plaster mortar products as high-quality new building materials has shown a broad application prospects. According to the Shanghai area of 20 million m2 of new residential area each year, the use of 1400m3 (2,700 tons) cement mortar per 10000m2 building, interior walls and ceilings accounted for the entire building to be painted surface and masonry mortar used in the amount of nearly 70% Each year the building wall needs 3.78 million tons of gypsum mortar, according to the ratio of gypsum and material 1: 3, the annual consumption of 945,000 tons of gypsum desulfurization. With the construction of commercial mortar and building energy-saving work of the full advance, plaster mortar products as high-quality new building materials has shown a broad application prospects.

1.3 Gypsum plaster board

Over the past decade, under the guidance of gypsum plaster board, gypsum deep processing market has been more than ten times the rapid development of its product raw materials from the proportion of a decade ago accounted for only about 10% of China's gypsum mine production increased to 2007 ; In 1997 China's annual output of gypsum plaster board more than 82 million square meters, and in 2007 the annual output has reached more than 900 million square meters, the average annual growth rate of production reached 30%; this is equivalent to the same period of China's GDP The growth rate of three times; thus becoming the main purpose of the current building gypsum, but some of the larger manufacturers of gypsum plaster board is their own production of building gypsum, the formation of milling, system board one-stop production line. Therefore, the construction of large-scale construction gypsum production enterprises, we must first consider whether there is a large user. The whole market "Beixin building materials" occupy half of the country, the production plant all over the country; several foreign multinational companies divide the melon market, 15%, less than 35% of the market, Of the market by the more than 400 small and medium-sized enterprises competing, so that these small and medium enterprises difficult, the brink of bankruptcy; therefore, the general business has been very difficult to enter the plaster board market.

2, building gypsum production equipment market analysis

As the current process for the production of building gypsum from natural gypsum is the calcination of powdered materials, the gypsum is powdered; therefore, the equipment for the production of gypsum from gypsum with gypsum varies little with natural gypsum; but it is not completely For example, desulfurization gypsum is not suitable for fluidized calcination equipment, because it is too small particle size, and some have not been burned out of the burned out of the gypsum and natural gypsum, according to the different points of the existing production process and equipment selection and transformation; , In order to solve this problem need to increase the homogenization of positions, and continue down position. At present, natural gypsum production of building gypsum equipment are: continuous wok, rotary kiln, boiling furnace, fluidized bed calciner, and sand base grinding, Peter mill, Sid dynamic calciner, etc .; generally very mature , But each has its advantages, so competitive.

6, high-strength gypsum and its production equipment market analysis

1, the main purpose of high-strength gypsum and market analysis

As the building plaster (ie, β-hemihydrate gypsum, or ordinary gypsum powder) physical strength is low, mainly used for gypsum board, gypsum block and some decorative materials, use is limited; and high-strength gypsum Water gypsum) physical strength is generally more than three times the ordinary gypsum powder, so it can not only replace the construction gypsum to reduce costs, and its use more widely; For example: dry compressive strength of 25Mpa ~ 40Mpa high-strength gypsum powder mainly used In the ceramic mold and building materials; dry compressive strength of 60Mpa above the high-strength gypsum is mainly used for a variety of such as dental, casting and other special mold, but the ultra-high-strength gypsum production equipment into expensive raw materials required to use natural fiber gypsum.

1.1 high-strength ceramic mold gypsum powder market analysis

Ceramic mold gypsum powder technical specifications requirements Features:

(1) to require wet bending strength of the main;

(2) that the requirements of wet flexural strength, but also requires a certain degree of water absorption (and use gypsum as raw material to produce plaster of Paris, at the same water absorption conditions, the wet bending strength is much higher than with natural gypsum Production of plaster of Paris powder);

(3) ceramic injection mold and rolling mold wet bending strength and water absorption requirements of different emphasis.

Ceramic mold gypsum powder market characteristics:

(1) China's annual output of ceramic half of the world, the amount of gypsum powder mold huge, reaching four million tons;

(2) Guangdong Chaoshan, Fujian Dehua area each year needs high-strength ceramic mold gypsum powder of about 1.5 million tons, wholesalers purchase price of 600 yuan / ton;

In the above two areas for the use of desulfurized gypsum production of high-strength ceramic mold gypsum powder profit analysis: At present, the two areas due to lack of natural gypsum resources, the use of high-strength ceramic mold gypsum powder from Hunan, Hubei into the short and long distance freight 150 yuan / Ton in the two areas with high-strength gypsum powder production of gypsum powder, the freight can be reduced by 120 yuan / ton to 150 yuan / ton, the cost of raw materials is 150 yuan / Ton, raw material savings of 80 yuan / ton, tax (waste residue tax) saving 50 yuan / ton, a total cost can be reduced by 250 yuan / ton, with the original normal profit, high-strength ceramic mold powder per ton of profit of at least 300 Yuan / ton.

(3) the market is very mature, no marketing applications;

(The main origin of China's ceramics are: Foshan, Guangdong and Chaozhou, Fujian Dehua and Yongchun, Hebei, Tangshan and Handan, Hunan Liling, Shandong Zibo, Jiangxi Jingdezhen, Shanxi Shuozhou, etc.)

1.2 Self-leveling gypsum market analysis

Introduction of self - leveling gypsum

Self-leveling gypsum is self-leveling ground leveling gypsum short, it is a floor cushion in the concrete floor can flow leveling; that is, under the action of its own gravity to form a smooth surface, an ideal building floor leveling layer is the laying of carpet , Wood floors and a variety of ground decoration materials of the base material. Building indoor ground The traditional practice is to use cement mortar leveling layer, and then do surface layer. This practice is time-consuming and time-consuming, especially in the leveling layer, to be hand-smooth. And with self-leveling gypsum, can be directly on the cushion layer of water leveling layer, to be hardened, the user can according to their own will in the gypsum leveling layer to do decorative layer.

Self-leveling gypsum construction of the ground, the size of accurate, very good flatness, not hollowing, not cracking. Watering 24 hours, you can walk in the above; 48 hours after the operation in the above. After drying, generally do not need dressing, the flatness that can reach a high level, can be directly on the ground paving PVC board or carpet. If you do solid wood flooring or paste floor tiles, with very little amount of adhesive, both to reduce the floor floor weight, but also save a lot of adhesive. As the self-leveling gypsum floor thermal conductivity coefficient is much lower than the cement mortar floor, foot on it without cold feeling.

Self-leveling floor leveling material to do a high standard indoor floor time, labor, can not be completed by senior plastering. Easy and convenient operation, high efficiency. And can be used for pumping construction, on the ground floor up to 800-1000m ?. In this way, you can also make seamless large area of the ground.

At present, the self-leveling gypsum in Japan and Western European countries, the application of more common, a mature production technology and supporting construction machinery. Self - leveling gypsum market prospect

China's annual new building volume of nearly 20 million square meters, according to one-half (1 billion square meters) of ground using self-leveling gypsum, per square meter 20 kg self-leveling gypsum (powder), a total of 20 million tons Self-leveling gypsum (powder), and its 50% of the composition of high-strength gypsum, the annual demand of 10 million tons of high-strength gypsum to produce self-leveling gypsum.

Market analysis of high - mixed gypsum mortar

High-strength gypsum-based gypsum mortar mixed with the main preparation of the general addition to the general gypsum mortar should have the usual advantages and the same quality standards after construction, high-mixed gypsum mortar mortar compared with the ordinary compared with the following advantages:

(1) with different sand, the final cost of construction materials greatly reduced

Ordinary gypsum and sand ratio of 1: 1, that is, one ton of ordinary gypsum used with one ton of building sand; and high-strength gypsum and sand ratio of 1: 3; therefore, with high-strength gypsum preparation of gypsum mortar low cost

(2) reduce 60% of the long-distance freight, the farther away, the greater the amount of cost reduction;

(3) the construction speed can be doubled about the same conditions, the same person, if the ordinary gypsum mortar one day to wipe 20 square meters (sticky, difficult to wipe open), with high-mixed sand mortar gypsum can wipe at least 30-40 square meters, This increases the speed of construction, shorten the construction period, the cost of this one is also considerable decline.

Thus, with the preparation of high-strength gypsum high-mixed gypsum mortar mortar mortar will become the mainstream products.

Market Analysis of Fly Ash High Strength Gypsum Block

Fly ash high-strength gypsum block is one of the new green wall materials gypsum block, as with the ordinary gypsum block, with the advantages of light weight, can replace the clay brick, less destroyed farmland, etc., in high-rise buildings as non- Load-bearing walls, can increase the effective use of about 10% of the area. The ordinary gypsum block is made up of ordinary gypsum powder and water, stirred and formed by pouring and hardening. The fly ash desulphurization gypsum block is prepared by high-temperature digestion of gypsum into α-hemihydrate gypsum slurry (or high-strength gypsum with water ) Mixed with fly ash after the direct casting molding; as fly ash is mainly composed of silica and aluminum oxide, when there is gypsum will produce hydrated calcium sulphoaluminate crystals of this water-hardening cementitious material, (1) higher strength, lower bulk density; (2) because of the high strength, so do not need the same as ordinary gypsum, as a result of high strength gypsum block not only has the advantages of ordinary gypsum block, but also has the following four advantages: (3) to overcome the ordinary desulfurization gypsum block dry shrinkage; (4) the softening factor is higher than the ordinary desulfurization gypsum masonry block (2) , Improve the gypsum block waterproof performance

2, the current production and marketing characteristics of high-strength gypsum analysis

At present, China's high-strength gypsum on the market all from the processing of natural gypsum, but because China can produce high-grade gypsum high-grade natural gypsum reserves, production constraints, forming a seller's market; coupled with uneven distribution of natural gypsum, For example, the foreign self-leveling gypsum has been very mature because of the volume and price of high-strength gypsum can not be a large area to promote the use of the reasons for the development of gypsum deep processing products are subject to restrictions;

3, high-strength gypsum production equipment market analysis

3.1 high-strength gypsum production equipment and process profile

Production of high-strength gypsum There are two traditional techniques: autoclave and hydrothermal method; the former equipment investment is relatively small, the process is relatively simple, mainly used in the production of dry compressive strength between 30MPa-40Mpa for building materials and ceramic mold , This high-strength gypsum strength can fully meet the building materials and ceramic mold, and the price is low, the market demand is very large; while the latter equipment investment, the process is complex, mainly used in the production of dry compressive strength of 60Mpa above for Dental molds, casting molds, high prices, the amount is small. At present, there are nearly a hundred to natural gypsum as raw materials, the use of autoclaved process production of high-strength gypsum production line, most of which is built on the basis of Ningxia Institute of gypsum technology.

However, the traditional autoclave process is the use of block natural gypsum as raw material, so this process and its autoclave equipment can not be directly used for powdered gypsum; desulfurization gypsum abroad for the production of high-strength gypsum using autoclave , The first desiccant gypsum dry and extruded into blocks, and then use the traditional autoclave process; this process not only increased the drying - briquetting - rewet steam - then crushed two groups of reciprocating invalid Of the process, but also increased the energy consumption. Therefore, the domestic enterprises according to the production process of high strength gypsum and the characteristics of desulfurized gypsum, invented the "closed closed plaster powder production process" (invention patent number: 200610012448.0); it with natural gypsum as raw material of high strength gypsum production process - - autoclave, which subtracts the reciprocating process of drying, briquetting, autoclaving and re-crushing. This reduces equipment investment and process links, reduces energy consumption and speeds up production. The use of this technology and the corresponding equipment to desulfurization gypsum as raw material to produce a qualified high-strength gypsum powder. (2) the same equipment can produce a variety of products (building gypsum, high-strength gypsum, high-strength gypsum, high-strength gypsum, (4) pressure wok no hot air discharge, and other use of steam heat source of plaster production equipment compared to reduce the heat consumption of 40% - 70%, the use of heat, So the product cost is low; (5) the lowest can use around 100 ℃ of various heat sources, in particular, can effectively use steam heat (see "gypsum building materials" 2008 the first period 21 pages).

4, with gypsum production of high-strength gypsum equipment market analysis

Because of our high grade of natural gypsum reserves, the origin away from the consumption of land; and desulfurization gypsum high grade, geographical distribution and very uniform; In addition, the application of high strength gypsum and more broad; therefore with gypsum to replace natural gypsum production of high-strength gypsum must be The general trend; if the high-strength gypsum per million tons of production equipment market price of 100 million, the total market can reach several billion dollars.

7, gypsum block production equipment market analysis

At present, the domestic gypsum block production enterprises generally small-scale, production equipment to automatic single-unit or manual unit-based, fully automated single unit with an annual output of up to 12 million square meters, it is pouring, solidification, stripping merger In a unit, due to the chemical properties of plaster of gypsum constraints, waiting for the time of 6 to 10 minutes of gypsum solidification is much larger than 1 minute grouting, stripping 2 minutes, the next grouting must be the last pouring, Solidification, stripping, reset, a total of about 15 minutes to carry out the next production; the production capacity of the procedure is not complete, production was intermittent, resulting in low production efficiency, high overall cost. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional gypsum block production equipment, domestic enterprises invented a continuous injection of gypsum block production line, the grouting, solidification, demold phase separation, complete the hydration reaction in the move, stirring grouting, water The production of gypsum block cost is low; its supporting mold and related parts can also be used in the production of high-quality castings, According to user requirements to adjust to change to meet the changing needs of the market to produce different types of blocks and specifications (thickness); annual output of up to 600,000 square meters, the price is only about half the size of the same output.

With the construction market to gypsum block excellent performance recognition, the market demand increases, the original small-scale production has been unable to meet the construction site construction schedule; therefore, more economical, more swift, replaceable specifications The continuous injection-type gypsum block production line has the most potential for development; we have calculated the price of the gypsum block production line of 600,000 square meters (about 60,000 cubic meters) with continuous injection of 2 million yuan, single unit and continuous injection production line Gypsum block production equipment market, half of the single unit of the market amounted to 2 billion, while the injection-type production line of the market amounted to 1 billion.


Market Analysis of Gypsum Board Production Equipment

Large plaster board manufacturers have formed a fixed industry portfolio, a small paper gypsum board production equipment manufacturers are not converting, is to export the third world countries.


9, environmental protection policy on the production of equipment requirements of plaster of Paris

China's eastern region has been prohibited to do the re-use of coal as a heat source, will not allow the disposal of coal desulphurization of waste at the same time emissions of sulfur dioxide. As a result, production equipment for plaster of paris, which includes building gypsum and high-strength gypsum, can only use superheated steam from heavy oil, natural gas, gas or power plants; however, the first three fuels are difficult to popularize due to price and geographical limitations; Desulfurization gypsum, mainly produced in coal-fired power plants, so the use of superheated steam plant to do production of gypsum powder equipment, heat source is the most ideal. However, for steam, its heat release is not evenly distributed with temperature changes, but when the steam into the condensate into water, 85% of the heat can be released. For example, under normal pressure, the enthalpy of liquid water at 100 ° C is 100 kcal / kg, and the enthalpy of steam at 100 ° C is 639 kcal / kg, and the heat of vaporization is 539 kcal / kg, When converted to liquid water, the heat energy released accounted for 84.35% of the total heat of steam. The heat enthalpy values of superheated steam at different temperatures and hot water at 100 ° C are listed in Table 1.

Therefore, in the production process of plaster of Paris, if you want to maximize the use of superheated steam heat, it is necessary to obtain the release of superheated steam vaporization.

Thermal energy, so that more than 84% of the heat can be provided to the production of plaster of Paris, an effective energy. In addition, the production of plaster of Paris requires one

The temperature of the fixed temperature range, as shown below: general industrial common gypsum dehydration transition temperature Note: This figure is taken from China Building Materials Industry Press, "Gypsum Building Materials" page 73, by the Wuhan University of Technology Professor Yue Wenhai overheated The average temperature (° C) of the heat exchange of the superheated steam can be estimated by the formula (1): Heat exchange temperature = (initial superheat steam temperature + 100) ÷ 2 × steam Heat enthalpy release ratio + 100 × vaporized water heat release ratio ------------ formula (1)

Summary of the above data, can be calculated by the following 250 ℃ superheated steam, the maximum energy efficiency provided by the average heat exchange temperature:

(250 + 100) ÷ 2 × 0.076 + 100 × 0.924 = 105.7 (° C)

When the superheated steam is 300 ℃, it is:

(300 + 100) ÷ 2 × 0.113 + 100 × 0.887 = 111.3 (° C)

Thus, the superheated steam at 250 ℃ ~ 300 ℃, only to meet the production of α-hemihydrate gypsum (ie, high-strength gypsum) temperature conditions; if you want to produce β-hemihydrate gypsum (ie building gypsum) will

To solve the problem of low heat exchange temperature.


Ten, desulfurization gypsum prospective application and research and development direction

1, plaster on behalf of the wood products - high-strength fiber gypsum board

1.1 Introduction to fiber gypsum board

Fiber gypsum board (or gypsum fiberboard), it is a gypsum powder as the main raw material to a variety of fibers (such as glass fiber, paper fiber, plant fiber, etc.) as a reinforcement material of a new type of building plaster board. The product has the advantages of plaster board, but also has a high impact resistance, the internal bond strong, compressive ability, fire, moisture, nail holding force and so has better performance, the insulation interval Thermal performance is better than gypsum board. Due to the appearance of eliminating the protective paper, its application than the plaster board also expanded, and more environmentally friendly, this is because the production of gypsum per square meter of paper consumption of 0.5 kg (face) paper, 2007 China Paper (More than 130 million m? of wood), and the production of a ton of paper to be consumed 2.5m? timber, the equivalent of 20 trees, afforestation to become useful material to go through 12-16 ㎡ And the paper industry is the world's fifth largest energy consumers, producing about a ton of paper about 0.4 tons of coal, equivalent to the production of energy consumption of one ton of steel, but also the consumption of water 200. At the same time, M?.

1.2 The use of fiber gypsum board and the market

Fiberglass board has considerable application flexibility and extensibility. It can be used as drywall, wall lining, partition board, tile and brick back panel, prefabricated board outer covering, ceiling block, floor, fire door and Columns, wall panels and special applications, such as the train compartment board and the boat compartment board, outdoor insulation decorative panels. Fiberglass plaster board can also be machined like a wooden board, made of a variety of decorative panels, laminated panels for indoor walls, furniture, flooring, roof and prefabricated houses and other basic, and it is formaldehyde-free, from all natural Material, harmless non-toxic is a green building materials, and can replace the precious forest resources. In 2006, China's wood-based panel production and sales of 74.28 million cubic meters, of which 4.5 million tons of formaldehyde adhesive used, the harm can not be ignored; if the fiber gypsum board to replace wood-based panel production and sales of one-tenth of an annual digestion More than 10 million tons of gypsum.

1.3 fiber gypsum board of the traditional production process

(2) and gypsum plaster board compared to the production process is complex, expensive equipment, the production process is very difficult, the process is not easy to use, Production costs are high; (3) itself with the strength of the construction of wood particleboard strength there is a big gap between the use of limited.

1.4 fiber gypsum board innovative production process

This is because desulphurization gypsum in the output contains a large proportion of water, according to the traditional process using gypsum production of gypsum products, the process is: the first baking gypsum products, the first gypsum products, Dry water, to produce building gypsum powder, and then add water, and finally by mixing and casting into gypsum products; and the program's production process without the desulfurization gypsum drying, the use of "hydrothermal" desulfurization gypsum off a half Crystalline water to obtain a slurry of alpha-hemihydrate gypsum which is then cast or pressed into a gypsum product. Therefore, the technical proposal not only saves the industrial water, but also has the opposite production process of drying first and adding water, the whole set of technology is scientific and concise, and saves the energy, meanwhile, saves the drying equipment and its investment; in addition, this process produces Of the gypsum products, high strength, than the traditional process of production of fiber gypsum board strength 30%, so that its use more widely. Thus, the co-production of gypsum products production system into the WFGD system can not only, value-added, but also eliminates the need for WFGD system in the vacuum belt dehydration device.

2, high insulation of the gypsum board application and research and development

2.1 The problem raised

China's housing construction design life is 70 years, but the current housing construction of the outer insulation layer of the main use of polystyrene materials, and its service life of only 15 years, or even less than 15 years began to chalk off, thus affecting the building Energy-saving effect; so the normal period of the building need to replace the external insulation layer several times, not only troublesome, but also because of the cost of replacing the outer insulation layer between owners and owners, property owners and real estate development companies and property Of the various disputes. Therefore, can be used for the external walls of buildings, to achieve the national energy-saving standards of gypsum insulation wall materials research and development and application is very important and urgent.

2.2 The thermal conductivity of different materials

2.3 gypsum wall insulation research and development direction

Under the same external conditions, the main factor determining the thermal conductivity of the material is the porosity of the material, and the thermal conductivity of the material itself is not the main factor for the overall thermal conductivity of the material; for example, the main mineral phase (M · k) and 27 W / (m · k), respectively, which are higher than the thermal conductivity of the gypsum (0.2 ~ 0.28 W / (m · k)), and the thermal conductivity of the two minerals is 11 W / (M · k)). However, because the porosity of the glass beads is much higher than that of the gypsum board, the thermal conductivity of the glass beads is only 17% ~ 24% of the gypsum board.

In addition, the material itself material strength is the formation of its porosity determinants, material itself material high strength, can make material formation higher porosity, thus forming a low thermal conductivity; the contrary, also against; for example, Can be made into very fine steel mesh, and can not be made into very fine plaster net. For example, the same is the inflatable gypsum board, produced by the high-strength gypsum plaster board, the thermal conductivity is lower than the building gypsum (gypsum plaster board), the thermal conductivity of the gypsum board is lower than the building gypsum Which shows that although the two kinds of gypsum plasterboard itself is gypsum, but because of the strength of high-strength gypsum is three times the strength of gypsum, high-strength gypsum plaster board produced porosity is higher than the building Gypsum; therefore, the former thermal conductivity is lower than the latter.

We also know that the use of hydrothermal law to produce high-strength gypsum, its strength is much higher than the autoclave produced high-strength gypsum, we can see: If the use of continuous hydrothermal method to produce high-strength gypsum slurry directly produce inflatable gypsum board , Not only can reduce the milling energy consumption, but also further improve the gas-filled gypsum board porosity, thereby further reducing the current production process under the conditions of the thermal conductivity of gypsum board for the building wall insulation, to increase neither Wall thickness, but also to achieve energy-saving leading indicators of 60% to 65%; to replace the existing building exterior insulation material - polystyrene materials, to overcome its easy aging of major defects; if this high thermal insulation Of the inflatable gypsum board can be successfully developed, its economic and social benefits will be immeasurable! At present, the research work of this high heat insulation and heat insulation gypsum board is mainly: research and development of gypsum plasterboard continuous molding equipment and its connection with high strength gypsum slurry pouring process produced by continuous hydrothermal method; the other is high strength gypsum Selection and Mixing of Various Additives in Slurry.

3, gypsum fiber

3.1 Introduction to Gypsum Fibers

Gypsum fiber, also known as gypsum whiskers, it refers to a uniform cross-section, complete shape, perfect internal structure, length to diameter ratio of 5 to 1000 or even higher fibrous single crystal. The length of the whisker is generally 10 ~ 1000μm, diameter is generally 0.01 ~ 10μm, the most typical diameter of whiskers in 1μm or so. Already industrialized production of whiskers are silicon carbide, silicon nitride, alumina, potassium titanate, calcium sulfate (gypsum) whiskers; their outstanding feature is its high strength, can be used as composite material reinforced component . In the world of high-tech field analysis, in all the large family of fiber materials, although it can not be said that the performance of gypsum fiber is the best, but it is indeed all the fiber materials in the production process is the most simple, the most mature production technology, production The lowest cost; therefore, it is bound to be more rapid and more widespread application. Gypsum fiber as a medium-strength filler, in particular the reinforcing effect of small diameter fibers and other high-performance fiber reinforced the same effect, but the price is only silicon carbide fiber 1/300 ~ 1/1000; and plastic used in conjunction , Can improve the tensile strength, bending strength, elasticity and thermal temperature; also can replace asbestos for friction materials, building materials, insulation materials. In addition, the gypsum fiber also has good electrical properties, flame resistance, heat resistance, insulation, thermal conductivity, alkali resistance, stability, water and organic solvents also have affinity, which can be used for a variety of Material excellent performance improvement and supplement. The most important thing is that the gypsum fiber also has the advantages of ordinary fiber materials can not match: it is harmless to human body, can break down in human gastric juice; Therefore, the gypsum fiber will be a very promising new inorganic fiber materials.

3.2 Gypsum fiber production technology and research and development direction

At present, the gypsum fiber mature production process is hydrothermal; but the raw materials used in high-quality natural gypsum, which limits the extensive use of gypsum fiber; desulfurization gypsum high grade, whether it is the same as high-quality natural gypsum can also be industrialized Production of gypsum fiber that will be an important research industry in the gypsum industry content, and then there is the production of gypsum fiber used in the choice of catalyst and ratio.

11, China's desulfurization gypsum industry outlook


Although China's gypsum deep-processing industry in the past decade under the guidance of gypsum board, gypsum deep processing products market has been more than 10 times the rapid development of its product raw materials from the proportion of a decade ago, China's natural gypsum mine production accounted for only 10 % To about 30% in 2007; annual production of gypsum board has reached nearly 1 billion square meters, but it has entered a stage of steady development; author predicts the next decade is a gypsum industry, the rapid development of the golden age, But it will be the gypsum as the development of high-strength cementitious material the most rapid stage; coupled with the high grade of desulfurized gypsum, less impurities, there is a large supply of consumption; therefore, if the equipment per million tons of desulfurized gypsum 100 Million, to deal with one-third of all desulfurized gypsum, can reach billions of market value; further processing, the equipment also has billions of dollars in market share; other these devices and technology can also be used to deal with and Desulfurization gypsum is similar to the annual emissions of 40 million tons of phosphogypsum comprehensive treatment, the market total of up to nearly 10 billion; and more substantial is the comprehensive utilization of desulfurization gypsum produced by the economic and social benefits, According to the comprehensive utilization of desulfurization gypsum produced by the net profit of 50 yuan, then tens of millions of tons of gypsum and gypsum gypsum can produce billions of annual net profit, the resulting social benefits can not use figures measure! In short, the distribution of desulfurized gypsum more uniform distribution characteristics, changing the original gypsum production areas away from the consumption of the situation, which is bound to break the original gypsum industry distribution pattern; and gypsum and natural gypsum different physical form, High-strength gypsum production equipment is a major innovation; high-grade characteristics of gypsum, but also to promote the extension of the development of gypsum products; In addition, the desulfurization gypsum is forced output, not use and pollute the environment, natural gypsum was natural State deep underground, no impact on the environment, so that the development of circular economy, energy-saving emission reduction policies, driven by the desulfurization gypsum deep processing industry is bound to speed development. Therefore, a large plaster industry shuffle big development began! Then the opportunity to rare in the gypsum industry reshuffle, who should first understand and grasp the opportunities, who mastered the advanced production technology and equipment (especially high-strength gypsum), who monopolized the eastern region of China gypsum products, the main consumption Region of desulfurization gypsum resources, who will become the new overlord of gypsum industry!

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